Unification of Physics, premises and basic results

  • Alfredo Bacchieri
Keywords: Total escape speed, Time dilation, Harvard tower experiment, Photoelectric effect, Compton effect.


It is shown that the measured constancy of c depends on two reasons: the first is the equality c , with u √ the total escape speed (from all the masses in the universe) and U the total gravitational potential, practi-cally constant on Earth; besides, as the said equality implies the massiveness of the light, we may guess its structure as composed of photons having parameters (their length) and frequency (their number, of the same ray, flowing in a time unit). The 2nd reason is due to the interaction light-matter: during the measurement of c, being S a source of light, maybe having a relative velocity from the measurement system R, each incident photon, parameter , , referred to S, is absorbed by an impacting electron (belonging to R) which take on, see Fig. 5, a radial velocity w; thus, due to Doppler effect, the incident frequency, referred to this electron, varies depending on w and and in particular, as w has same direction as the incident photons, see Fig. 5, for it is Then, after the absorption/emission time, the photons re-emitted by the electron (acting as a new source) have (like on Compton ef-fect) different parameters, and see Fig. 2A: in fact, equating the variation of energy of the in-cident/reflected photons to the one of the impacted electrons, see § 1.4, we found ( ) whichever are the values w and So, the measured c turns out to be constant, without the Relativity Theory (RT) support.
In the 2nd part, we have considered the electron charge as a point particle (impact point) fixed on the electron sur-face, facing the atom nucleus during the electron orbits, see Fig. 5. On these bases, all the impacts photons-electron move the electron toward higher orbits, and we found that, on H atom, the number of the electron circular orbits is n = 137 (instead of the infinite ones as deemed) while the electron ground-state orbital speed is exactly = c/137; moreover, we found that the quantum numbers are related to the number of admitted photons along each electron cir-cular orbit. As for the claimed fall of circling electrons into their nucleus due to their supposed emission of photons, the electrons are emitting the previously absorbed photons only during the spiral path from higher orbits toward their ground-state, as shown on § 2.4.1. Finally, a specific experiment would show that the compensation velocity (to re-store the resonance source-detector at different height) has opposite direction with respect to the one predicted by RT.


Download data is not yet available.


[1] Kragh, H. (1999), Cosmology and Controversy, 212
[2] Gogberashvili, M., et al. (2014) Cosmological Parameters, ArXiv 1210.4618
[3] NASA, http://wmap.gfsc.nasa.gov/universe/uni shape.htlm
[4] Oliver R Jovanovic, Gravity, Planck constant, structure of elementary …, http://vixra.org/abs/1209.0087 (2012)
[5] Pound, R.V. and Rebka Jr. (1959) Physical Review Letters Vol.3 Issue 9, pg. 439, Gravitational red-shift in nuclear ..
[6] Pound, R.V. and Rebka Jr., G.A. (1960) Physical Review Letters, 4, 337.
[7] Pound, R.V. and Snider, J.L. (1965) Physical Review, 140, 788.
[8] Pound, R.V. and Snider, J.L. (1964) Physical Review Letters, 13, 539.
[9] Halliday-Resnick, Fundamental of Physics (1981), chapter 47-2 and chapter 8-9, example 7.
[10] (Yearly) NASA extragalactic database: Galaxy M86 has z 0.001 with s  16 Mpc;
M99 has z  + 0.008 with s 15 Mpc; NGC0063 has z 0.004 with s  20 Mpc;
VCC0815 has z 0.0025 with s 20 Mpc.
[11] Topper, David (2012). How Einstein create Relativity….. , Springer Editor, page 118
[12] C.W. Chou et al.- Science 2020, Optical clocks and relativity, 329 (5999) pgs 1630-1633
[13] Halliday-Resnick, Fundamental of Physics, 1981, § 26-6 [14] Gawiser, E.; Silk, J. (2000). "The cosmic microwave background radiation". Physics Reports. 333–334 (2000): 245– 267. arXiv:astro-ph/0002044 [15] Fixsen, D. J. (2009). "The Temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background". The Astrophysical Journal. 707 (2): 916–920. arXiv:0911.1955. Bibcode:2009ApJ...707..916F. [16] Hoyle, F., and Wickramasinghe, N. C., Nature, 214, 969 (1967). [17] J.O. Newton, Contemporary Physics, Spinning Nuclei, 1989, Vol. 30, number 4, page 277.
How to Cite
Bacchieri, A. (2021). Unification of Physics, premises and basic results. Boson Journal of Modern Physics, 8(1), 24-52. Retrieved from http://www.scitecresearch.com/journals/index.php/bjmp/article/view/2070